First and foremost, Organic Farming is monitored by an international body set up in 1972 - The International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movement (IFOAM). And I quote from their website: "The role of organic agriculture, whether in farming, processing, distribution, or consumption, is to sustain and enhance the health of ecosystems and organisms from the smallest in the soil to human beings."
Therefore, what we are talking about Eco-Agriculture and the key word here is health. Organic Farming does not entertain genetically modified foods, battery-raised animals, additives to animal feed, or anything that is artificial in any way in agricultural practices.
There are 4 main principles of Organic Farming as laid down by IFOAM:
Organic agriculture is based on:
The principle of health
The principle of ecology
The principle of fairness
The principle of care
The Principle of Health
It stands to reason that if we grow food and raise animals on healthy soil then we will grow healthy crops and have healthy animals. The consequence of this is that we then eat healthy food, and, as a result have a healthy body. It is the sequential chain of reactions that relies totally on where it all starts: the soil.
People are concerned about food safety, particularly in light of the fact that there is serious concern that modern Agri-Farming practices that are not organic, have caused food allergies, asthma, and heart disease through artificial additives and chemical fertilizers that we ingest. Worse still there are diseases directly linked to irresponsible farming practices that ignore common sense. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy appears to have been caused by feeding cows, that are naturally herbivores, the remains of other cattle and bone meal in order to increase weight and early slaughter.
The Principle of Ecology
We need to go back to what nature intended and that is what Organic Farming is all about. It is to grow crops and raise animals on land that is enriched with compost and mulches that are well rotted because this is the most paramount of stages in organic farming. The aim is to get as much humus into the land as possible, and this includes manure, compost, seaweed, leaf-mould, spoiled hay, and anything of vegetable or animal origin, including blood and bone, that can go into making a compost heap. The keyword here is recycling. There is the old adage; "Waste not, want not" and never so true in farming organically.
Any left over crops or wood should never be burnt on a property. This is an absolute waste of potential compost, and it is also a pollution contributor. Why burn it when you could use it and it isn't costing you anything? Why burn those vine cuttings and those orchard prunings? Invest in a chipper to reduce the bulk and add these to your compost heap.
What happens to your soil when it is healthy? It is filled with micro-organisms and those beautiful earthworms that delight the heart of those who care. Once you have earthworms in your soil you know that you are doing something right.
Remember too that you need to rest your soil and to use crop-rotation effectively. When you have a field at rest plant a cover crop, such as rye grass as a temporary planting in autumn. This protects the soil from wind and water erosion and adds organic matter. You can also grow crops such as legumes for soil improvement, called green manure crops, and are often left in place for six months to a year. Legumes are especially efficient because they "fix" nitrogen from the air into the soil.
In England more and more farmers are replanting hedgegrows on their farms as they now realize how important they are. Many animals and insects use these hedges as part of their ecosystem, therefore when the hedgegrows were removed, these little animals and insects then lost their natural shelters and an imbalance on the ecosystem resulted in an influx on insects that were unwelcome. They are also excellent wind-breakers and hold the soil in place to prevent soil erosion.
The Principle of Fairness
Organic farming believes in fairness in that the land, its people and its animals should be respected and treated with care and justice. We are custodians of this land, and as such, the custodianship should be taken seriously. We should ensure that we never harm or damage the environment in any way. That our aim should be to ensure that we are doing everything in our power to produce healthy food for everyone, and that nothing that we do when we work the land is harmful in any respect to the soil and water that we use, the animals that we rear and those that consume the end product.
Animal rearing has always been controversial with the implementation of factory farming. Factory farming is inhumane where animals are kept in confined and overcrowded spaces, and in poor conditions where they maim each other just to fight for space and life. Animals have to be reared justly, and given open spaces to live. It acknowledges that there has to be a link between the animal and the soil and that their welfare and veterinary care is vital.
The Principle of Care
Although this is last on this list of principles, I feel that it is probably the most important one. Because if one did not care about the environment, the situation of where we are at the moment and the importance of providing healthy food for a healthy lifestyle, then we would not embark on any of the above